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欧洲议会提议“逐步废除投资移民计划”?且听未来公民学院专家如何解读

近日,瑞麟集团未来公民学院采访到Luuk van der Baaren博士,针对欧洲议会提议“逐步废除投资入籍与居留项目”等问题做出详细政策解读。
 


Future Citizen Institute: Why does European Parliament urge to phase out RBI/CBIprogrammes?

未来公民学院:欧洲议会为何迫切希望废除投资居留/入籍项目


 

Dr. Van der Baaren:

In November 2018, the European Parliament’s TAX3 Committee published a special report on financial crime, tax evasion and tax avoidance. The report covered a wide range of related subjects, ranging from BEPS (base erosion and profit shifting) to VAT fraud and freeports. A small section of the report was dedicated to citizenship by investment (CBI) and residence by investment (RBI) programmes. The report concluded that CBI and RBI programmes may pose a risk for money laundering and tax evasion. Among others, the report observed that citizenship or residence may be granted without proper customer due diligence, that CBI and RBI programmes regularly grant tax priviliges to its beneficiaries and that CBI and RBI programmes may be misused for evading Common Reporting Standard (CRS) procedures. Therefore, the report urged States to “phase out all existing CBI or RBI schemes as soon as possible”. However, the report also recommended that, in case these programmes remain in place, States should ensure that enhanced customer due diligence is carried out and that potential conflicts of interests are prevented. On March 26, 2019, the conclusions of the report were adopted by the European Parliament in a plenary meeting in the form of a (non-binding) resolution. The resolution of the European Parliament does therefore recommend Member States to phase out CBI and RBI programmes, but cannot impose an obligation on Member States to do so.


Van der Baaren博士:

2018年11月,欧洲议会税收委员会发表了一份关于金融犯罪、逃税和避税的特别报告。报告涵盖了十分广泛的内容,包括从税基侵蚀和利润转移,到增值税欺诈和自由港问题。报告中有一小部分专门讨论了投资入籍(CBI)和投资居留(RBI)项目

 

报告总结道,投资入籍和投资居留项目可能造成洗钱和逃税的风险。报告其他方面还提到,公民身份或居留权可能在没有进行全面的客户调查的情况下就被授予了,投资入籍和投资居留项目通常会提供给受益人税收特权,同时这些项目可能会被滥用,以避开共同申报准则程序。因此,该报告呼吁各国“尽快废除现有的投资入籍和投资居留项目”。然而报告还建议,如果这些项目仍然存在,各国应确保加强对客户的背景调查,以防止可能的利益冲突。2019年3月26日,欧洲议会在全体会议上,以非约束性决议的形式采纳了该报告的论点。因此,欧洲议会建议成员国逐步取消投资入籍和投资居留项目,但不强迫成员国这样做

 

Future Citizen Institute: What role does the European Parliament play in European countries decision making process?

未来公民学院:欧洲议会在欧洲各国的决策过程中扮演着什么样的角色?
 



Dr. Van der Baaren:

The European Parliament is a parliamentary institution of the European Union and plays a role in its legislative process. The European Union is a supranational organization with 28 Member States that operates on the basis of a division of competences between the EU-level and the Member State-level. Together with the Council of the European Union, the European Parliament has power over the Union’s legislation and its budget. Next to that, the European Parliament aims to exert indirect influence, for example through adopting (non-binding) motions and resolutions.
 

Van der Baaren博士:

欧洲议会是欧盟的议会机构,在立法过程中发挥作用。欧盟是一个拥有28个成员国的跨国组织,它的运作是基于欧盟和成员国之间的权限分工之上的。欧洲议会与欧盟理事会一起,形成了对欧盟立法和预算管理的权力。其次,欧洲议会主要施加间接影响,例如通过采纳不具约束力的动议和决议。
 


Future Citizen Institute: How can the European Parliament and the European Commission influence the legislative processes of European countries?

未来公民学院:欧洲议会和欧洲委员会如何影响欧洲国家的立法过程?
 


Dr. Van der Baaren:

In an area that falls within the scope of the European Union’s competences and for which an adequate legal base is provided, the European Commission and the European Parliament can attempt to have a direct influence by bringing forward and adopting legislative proposals. In other areas, the European institutions can attempt to have an indirect influence. When it comes to CBI- and RBI programmes, the European institutions can therefore only aim to indirectly influence the legislative process at the Member State-level.

 

Van der Baaren博士:

在欧洲联盟职权范围,并有充分法律基础的领域内,欧洲委员会和欧洲议会可以试图通过提出和采纳立法方案来进行直接影响。在其他方面,欧洲机构可以试图进行间接影响。当涉及投资入籍和投资居留项目时,欧洲机构只能间接的影响成员国的立法过程

 

Future Citizen Institute: How many countries in Europe currently have a RBI/CBI programme?

未来公民学院:现在欧盟有多少国家拥有投资居留/入籍项目?
 


Dr. Van der Baaren:

Residence by investment programmes have been implemented in fourteen EU Member States, namely Ireland, the United Kingdom, Netherlands, France, Spain, Portugal, Italy, Greece, Czech Republic, Malta, Cyprus, Croatia, Latvia and Luxembourg. Citizenship by investment programmes can be found in Austria, Malta, Cyprus, Bulgaria and Romania.

 

Van der Baaren博士:

现有14个欧盟成员国,即爱尔兰、英国、荷兰、法国、西班牙、葡萄牙、意大利、希腊、捷克共和国、马耳他、塞浦路斯、克罗地亚、拉脱维亚和卢森堡,已经实行了投资居留项目。奥地利、马耳他、塞浦路斯、保加利亚和罗马尼亚都设有投资入籍项目。

 

Q5. Future Citizen Institute:  What is your view on the resolution of the European Parliament? How might the resolution affect current programmes?

问题5. 未来公民学院:你对欧洲议会的决议有何看法?该决议对目前的项目会有什么影响?
 


Dr. Van der Baaren:

The adopted resolution is extensive; it covers 72 pages and contains dozens of recommendations aimed at the European Commission and the European Member States. As mentioned before, the resolution sees on a wide range of topics related to finance crime and taxation. The report therefore covers a large number of pressing and highly topical issues (e.g. the combat of international tax fraud) and CBI- and RBI-related matters only play a minor role in it. It is extremely unlikely that the resolution will prompt any EU Member State to abolish its CBI- or RBI programme, yet it might urge States to implement further regulatory safeguards in their programmes and thereby further improve their trustworthiness. It must also be noted that the resolution is non-binding, as the grant of a residence permit or citizenship in this regard has remained a competence of the EU Member States.

 

Van der Baaren博士:

被通过的决议内容非常多;长达72页并且包含几十项针对欧盟委员会和欧盟成员国的建议。如之前所提到的,该决议涉及大量与金融犯罪和税收有关的议题。因此,该报告涉及大量的紧迫而又极度热门的话题 (例如:打击国际税务欺诈),投资入籍和投资居留的相关问题只是其中的很小一部分。该决议不太可能要求欧盟成员国即刻废除其投资入籍和投资居留项目,然而,它可能会促使各国在其方案中执行进一步的管理保障措施,从而进一步提高其信誉。需要注意的是,该决议没有约束力,因为在这方面,授予居留许可或公民身份仍然是欧盟成员国的权力。

 

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