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未来公民学院智库最新权威发布:回应欧盟委员会的《欧盟地区投资入籍与居留项目报告》

2019-02-21 未来公民

2019年1月,欧盟委员会发布了关于欧盟地区投资入籍与居留项目的报告,在仔细阅读这份报告后,未来公民学院专家智库团做了如下回应:

In January 2019, European Commission haspublished the report on Investor Citizenship and Residence Schemes,in the European Union after carefully reviewing the report our institute would like to make following response:

 

(下载地址:https://www.ifuturecitizen.com/knowledge)

 

未来公民学院智库最新权威发布:回应欧盟委员会的《欧盟地区投资入籍与居留项目报告》

 

 

 

 

研究人员

 

 

Olivia Su

VP of Research & Development 研究与发展部门副总裁

 

Dr Olivier Vonk

Director of Research  研究部门总监

 

Luuk van der Baaren

Senior Researcher  高级研究员

 

Dr Fanny Tittel-Mosser

Senior Researcher  高级研究员

 

Juddson Larkins

Senior Manager of R&D  研究与发展部门高级经理

 

 

争议一:欧盟公民身份及成员国家公民身份

EU Citizenship and Member State Citizenship

 

委员会的报告主要围绕“真实关系”这一概念批判投资者与提供投资入籍/投资居留项目国家之间的联系。然而,自从国际法院定义“真实关系”这一概念起,就一直备受争议。同时,国际法对于每个国家的入籍要求并没有发表任何声音。有业内人士提出争议,表示不应该由第三方机构来分析评判某个人入籍的动机业内人士也提出声明,表示欧盟法律目前不允许干涉成员国决定谁成为他们的公民。

 

The Commission report relies on the concept of the genuine link in criticizing the relation between investors and States offering CBI/RBI programmes. However, the genuine link doctrine has been disputed ever since it wasdefined by the International Court of Justice in the Nottebohm case.Moreover, international law is silent as to the requirements for States to grant naturalisation, and commentators have argued that the analysis of the motives that lead someone to naturalise should not be made by third parties. Commentators have equally claimed that EU law is presently not allowed to interfere with the competence of the member states to determine who their nationals are. 

 

 

<未来公民学院>回应

 
 
 

 

 

这一点在《欧洲联盟运作条约》第20条有被确认: 它指出:欧盟公民身份是一种附加身份,并不意味着取代其国家公民身份。因此,委员会提倡的真诚合作原则,在这个问题上是不相关的。委员会还注意到,成员国目前并没有在投资入籍的申请人方面相互协商咨询。然而,事实表明国家之间普遍存在相通籍决策信息的现象,这个问题值得讨论。

 

This is confirmed by Article 20 of Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union which states that EU citizenship is an additional status and is not meant to replace national citizenship. The principle of sincere cooperation, as invoked by the Commission, is therefore irrelevant in this matter. The Commission also notes that member states currently do not consult each other on applicants for investor citizenship. However, state practice shows that it is very questionable that countries inform each other of citizenship decisions generally.

 

此外,委员会注意到,没有一个投资入籍计划提供在投资基础上成功获得公民身份者的全面信息。然而,在归化入籍的实践中表明,一般而言,国籍的授予由主管当局酌情决定,通过议会法案授予入籍资格的国家在官方公报中公布申请人的个人资料,这一情况属于例外。

 

In addition, the Commission observes that under none of the investor citizenship schemes comprehensive information is available about the identity of people who successfully obtain citizenship on the basis of investment. State practice as regards naturalisation, however, shows that the grant of nationality is generally by a discretionary decision of the competent authorities. Countries that grant naturalisation by Act of Parliament, leading to the publication of the applicants’ personal details in the Official Gazette, are the exception.

<a href=https://www.oushengpartners.com.cn/e/tags/?tagname=%E6%AC%A7%E7%9B%9F%E6%8A%A4%E7%85%A7 target=_blank class=infotextkey>欧盟护照</a>

争议二:欧盟边境安全

EU Border Security

 

欧盟委员会的报告指出:投资入籍计划会造成潜在的安全风险。

The European Commission report states that citizenship by investment programs create potential security risks. However, CBI States have already addressed such concerns.

 

 

<未来公民学院>回应

 
 
 

 

 

但是,有投资入籍项目的国家已经解决了这些问题。大多数欧洲投资入籍项目的申请者不仅首先要求在符合欧盟法律安全要求的情况下申请居留许可,他们还必须进行额外的尽职调查。例如在马耳他,申请人在很多方面被视为不合格,这也是由于进行了进一步的外部尽职调查。自2018年以来,塞浦路斯一直限制中间机构对他们的申请人进行尽职调查的要求。欧盟委员会明确指出:这些进一步的安全检查需求并不能消除所有的潜在风险。然而,应该承认这些程序提升了价值。相比其他入籍方式,投资入籍项目通常对申请人实施更加严格的安全检查。

 

The European Commission report states that citizenship by investment programs create potential security risks. However, CBI States have already addressed such concerns. Not only areapplicants for most European CBI programs first requiredto apply for a residence permit, which subjects them to the regular security requirements of EU law. But they also have to under go additional due diligence checks. In Malta, for example, applicants are considered as ineligible on numerous grounds and are also subjected to anenhanced external due diligence screening Cyprus has, since 2018, restricted its requirements and demands that intermediary agencies conduct a due diligence screenings on their applicants. The European Commission rightly states that these enhancedsecurity requirements cannot eliminate all potential risks. Nevertheless, it should be acknowledged that these procedures have added value and that citizenship by investment programmes usually impose more stringent security requirements on their applicants than other naturalisation routes.

欧盟

欧盟移民法和边境安全

EU Migration Law and Bordersecurity

 

对于委员会的报告,主要想阐述两点。首先,欧盟委员会反对投资入籍和投资居留计划的论据之一,是欧盟努力保护的领土,可能由于投资居留与入籍项目使得其他国家公民跨越欧盟边界而无法受到同样的管理和控制。

 

In response to the Commission’s Report, I would like tounderline two main points. First, one ofthe arguments used by the European Commission against CBI and RBI programmes is that they could undermine. EU’s efforts to secure its territory as RCBI beneficiaries would not be subjected to the same type of control as other third country nationals crossing EU borders.

 

委员会在报告中提到了:在投资居留与入籍项目中对例如像申根信息系统或者是签证信息系统运用的信息的缺乏作为回应。马耳他指出:他们的尽职调查中,已经在使用欧盟的集中信息系统。我们乐于分享其他欧盟国家有关投资居留以及投资入籍项目的信息,从而更好地告知欧盟现有的进度以减少潜在的安全风险。

 

 In the report, the Commission mentions the lack of information related to theuse of instruments such as the Schengen Information System or the Visa Information System in RCBI programmes. As a response, Malta specified that their due diligence checks are already using EU’s centralized information systems. We are in favour of the sharing of information in this regard by other EU countries proposing RBI and CBI schemes in order to better inform the EU of the existing procedures in place to mitigate potential security risks.

 

另外,有一个很重要的方面没有提到,即所有通过欧盟成员国的投资居留项目获得居留许可的人必须遵守欧盟法律。然后,委员会表示十分关心。投资居留和投资入籍项目的外部环境,例如关于像摩尔多瓦和黑山。然而,大多那些用于监测受益于免签旅行和入境基准的国家的手段,已经包括了安全、洗钱、透明度和良好的治理。所以这些担忧是没有根据的,如果那些提供居留和投资入籍项目的国家之间能有更好的交流从而加深对此领域的了解就足够了。

 

Additionally, an important aspect is not mentioned, namely that all residency permit granted under RBI schemes currently proposed by EU member states have to follow EU law. Then, the Commission expresses concern about the external dimension of RBI/CBI programmes for example in relation to Moldova and Montenegro. However, as most monitoring tools for countries benefiting from visa-free travels and bench marks for accession countries already include the issues of security money laundering, transparency and good governance these concernsare ill-founded. A better communication between countries offering RCBI schemes and the EU, leading to a better understanding of this specific field, will surely be enough.

欧盟

 

争议三:投资移民对国家的经济影响

Economic Impact- The Case of Malta and Cyprus

 

 

投资移民项目对国家房地产市场的经济有着一定的影响。

 

I would like now to showcase the economic impacts of Investment Migration programmes with a focus on real estate markets of Cyprusand Malta.

 

 

<未来公民学院>回应

 
 
 

 

 

以塞浦路斯和马耳他房地产市场的经济影响为例:马耳他要求参与投资入籍计划的人,购买价值至少35万欧元的住宅房产,或者租赁年租金超过1.6万欧元的房产。2016年,所有通过投资入籍产生的房产交易占马耳他所有房地产交易的1%不到然而,这些交易占了所有房地产交易总价值的5%以上。

 

 Malta requires participants in the Citizenship by Investment scheme to purchase residential property worth at least €350,000 or lease a property with an annual lease rateof over €16,000. In 2016, all Citizenship by Investment relatedreal estate transactions accounted for less than 1% of all real estate transactions in Malta. However, these transactions accounted for over 5% of the total value of all real estate transactions. 

 

这表明,与投资入籍相关的投资可以对马耳他的房地产市场产生巨大影响,因此可能会导致通胀趋势,塞浦路斯也要求投资者购买住宅地产。2018年12月,国际货币基金组织宣布塞浦路斯超过25%的住宅建筑是由外国投资者投资的,其中大多数是投资入籍计划的参与者。这表明,一方面投资入籍项目的投资可以帮助刺激一个行业的增长,但另一方面,可以让一个行业变得脆弱,在这种情况下,建筑业会受到投资水平变化的影响。

 

This shows that investment related to the CBI scheme can have outsized impact on the real estatemarket in Malta, and in this case could cause inflationary tendencies Cyprus also requires investors to purchase residential property. In December 2018, the International Monetary Fund announced that over 25% of all residential construction in Cyprus was backed by foreign investors, most of whom are part participants in the Citizenship by Investment scheme. This goes to show that on one hand, that investment from the Citizenship by Investment scheme can help spur growth in an industry but on the other hand, can leave an industry vulnerable and in this case the construction industry tochanges in the level of investment.

未来公民学院智库最新权威发布:回应欧盟委员会的《欧盟地区投资入籍与居留项目报告》

投资持牌基金,提高安全与透明

Investing in Licenced Fund for Improved Security and Transparency

 

也可以认为不同的投资方式,会带来不同的风险和安全隐患。一些国家已经引入了投资持牌基金的选择,这些基金会直接由本国监管机构监督,同时,结合进一步的风险管理和透明度。它能显著降低风险预计投资规模也会大得多,投资的影响也会更容易量化。

 

It can also be argued that different investment options pose different risks and security concerns. Some states have introduced the option of investing in a licenced fund. The fund will be directly monitored by home Member State regulators with enhanced risk management and transparency. It leads to significant risk reduction. The investment scale is also expected to be much largerand the investment impact can also be more easily quantified.

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